清淨菩提心之道 ── 什麼是世間的布施？ The path to purify Bodhicitta──What is secular generosity? 《大般若經》卷424云： 爾時，具壽舍利子問善現言：「云何菩薩摩訶薩修行六種波羅蜜多時淨菩提道？」 善現答言：「舍利子！六波羅蜜多各有二種。一者、世間。二者、出世間。」 舍利子問：「云何世間布施波羅蜜多？云何出世間布施波羅蜜多？」 善現對曰：「舍利子！若菩薩摩訶薩為大施主，能施一切沙門、婆羅門、貧病、孤露、道行、乞者，須食與食，須飲與飲，須乘與乘，須衣與衣，須香華與香華，須莊嚴具與莊嚴具，須舍宅與舍宅，須醫藥與醫藥，須燈明與燈明，須坐臥具與坐臥具，如是一切隨其所須余資生具悉皆施與。 若復有來乞男與男，乞女與女，乞妻妾與妻妾，乞官秩與官秩，乞國城與國城，乞王位與王位，乞頭目與頭目，乞耳鼻與耳鼻，乞手足與手足，乞支節與支節，乞血肉與血肉，乞骨髓與骨髓，乞僮僕與僮僕，乞生類與生類，如是一切隨其所求內外之物悉皆施與。 雖作是施而有所依，謂作是念：『我施彼受，我為施主，我不慳貪，我隨佛教一切能舍，我行布施波羅蜜多。』彼行施時以有所得而為方便，與諸有情平等共有，回向無上正等菩提。 復作是念：『我持此福施諸有情，令獲此世後世安樂，乃至證得無餘涅槃。』 彼著三輪而行布施。何等為三？所謂自想、他想、施想。 由著此三輪而行施故，名世間布施波羅蜜多。 何緣此施名為世間？以與世間同共行故，不動不出世間法故，由斯故說世間布施波羅蜜多。 白話翻譯： 那時，舍利子問善現說：「什麼是菩薩修六度的時候所行的清淨菩提心之道呢？」 善現回答：「舍利子！六度各有二種：一者、世間。二者、超越世間。」 舍利子問：「什麼是世間的布施？什麼是超越世間的布施？」 善現回應：「舍利子！若有菩薩作為大施主，能布施一切修行人、貧窮病苦的人、無依的孤兒、遠行的旅者、乞丐，他們須要飲食給與飲食，須要交通給與交通，須要衣服給與衣服……等等，這樣一切隨他們所須求的內外身物都給與。 雖然作了這些布施而心中仍有所依賴，所謂想說：『我布施、他接受，我是布施者，我沒有慳貪心，我隨順佛陀的教法一切事物都能施捨，我修行布施。』他修行布施的時候是以心有所獲得(或成就)做為修行的方法，去與眾生平等地共同分享，以此回向無上菩提。 又心裡作這樣的想法：『我拿自己的這些福報布施給眾生，令他們獲得今世及後世的安樂，乃至最後證得涅槃解脫。』所以這位菩薩是執著三輪而修行布施的。 什麼是三輪呢？所謂心裡存著『自己』、『別人』及『布施』的想法。 由於執著這三輪而去修行布施，所以稱之為世間布施。 為何此布施叫做世間呢？因為它與世間是一樣的行為，不能動搖、不能超出世間的狀況，因此稱之為世間布施。 English translation: 《The Mahaprajnaparmita Sutra》 fascicle 424 states: At the time, Venerable Sariputra asked Venerable Subhuti: "What is the pure Bodhicitta path when the Bodhisattva cultivates the six paramitas?" Subhuti (his name literally means "Good Existence": Su - "good"; bhūti - "existence") replied: "Sariputra! There are two kinds of six paramitas: first, secular and second, supramundane." Sariputra (his name literally means "son of ?ārī”: ?ārī - the name of his mother which means a bird with large and beautiful eyes; putra - “son”) asked: "What is secular generosity? What is supramundane generosity?" Subhuti answered: "Sariputra! If there is a Bodhisattva who is a great and generous donor capable of providing to all spiritual practitioners including those who live in the agony of poverty in addition to all the helpless orphans, travelers, and beggars. If they need nourishment, he provides food. If they need transportation, he provides transportation. If they need warmth, he provides clothing and shelter, etc. In this way, the Bodhisattva fulfills both their internal and external material needs. Although he practices such immense generosity, there are still the following lingering thoughts of attachment and clinging in his mind: "I gave. He accepted. I am a benefactor. I did not have the mind of greed or covetousness. I followed the teachings of the Buddha and gave everything for the sake of charity. As such, I practiced generosity." When he practices generosity, he cultivates with the mind of attainment or achievement as a means of sharing with all other beings equally and transferring these merits toward the realization of the highest enlightenment. Again, his mind is contemplating the following thoughts: "I took my fortunate retributions and gave them to all beings, so that they might attain well-being in the present and future lives and even at last realize Nirvana (or liberation)." In essence, this Bodhisattva cultivated generosity with attachments to the three aspects of giving. What are the three aspects of giving? They are so-called having thoughts of the “self”, “others,” and “the act of giving.” Since this cultivation of generosity is practiced with attachments to the three aspects of giving, it is appropriately called the secular generosity. Why is this generosity considered as secular? The reason is because it possesses the same attributes as the world. In other words, it cannot remove and not capable of transcending worldly circumstances. As such, it is deemed as secular generosity."?